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Deaf/Hard of Hearing

It often comes as a surprise to people that many deaf people refer to themselves as members of Deaf culture. The American Deaf culture is a unique linguistic minority that uses American Sign Language (ASL) as its primary mode of communication.

The term, “deaf” refers to members of the Deaf community who share common values, norms, traditions, language, and behaviors. Deaf people do not perceive themselves as having lost something (i.e. hearing) and do not think of themselves as handicapped, impaired or disabled.  They celebrate and cherish their culture because it gives them the unique privilege of sharing a common history and language.  Deaf people are considered a linguistic minority within the American culture.  They have their own culture and at the same time live and work within the dominant American culture.

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Pepnet2 (pn2) recognizes the full range of postsecondary education and training options available for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing, including those with co-occurring disabilities, and strives to enhance the capacity of those institutions to appropriately serve this diverse student population.  Pn2 is a national collaboration of  professionals with expertise in a broad array of content areas and  a variety of environments, including research, technology, personnel development, media production, and technical assistance.

Resources include:

  • Live, one-on-one assistance in a variety of communication modes,
  • In-person and online training,
  • Materials that are downloadable, printable or available

Deaf and Hard of Hearing Basics (HOH)

Guidelines for Communication

Not sure how to communicate with a student who is deaf? This article provides five simple guidelines.

1. Most people feel uncomfortable when meeting a Deaf person for the first time. This is very normal.  When we communicate with people, we general don't have to think about the process. When faced with a Deaf person, we are uncertain which rules apply. We don't know where to look, or how fast or loud to speak. When the Deaf person gives us a look of confusion, we don't know how to correct the problem. Accept the fact that your initial communications will feel uncomfortable and awkward. As you interact more, you will start to feel more comfortable and know how to make yourself understood.

2. It's okay to write a Deaf person. The Deaf person will appreciate your effort even more if you use a combination of gestures, facial expressions, body language, and written communication. Some Deaf people can lip read very well.  If one approach doesn't work, try another. If the deaf person uses her/his voice and you don't understand, it's fine to indicate the person should write.

3. Most people engage in very quick and efficient conversations. We often lose patience when someone is having difficulty understanding. We look for ways to speed up the interaction. Deaf people highly value face-to-face communication and perceive it as an investment, not as an imposition. Take the time to communicate and connect. If the Deaf person does not understand, she or he will ask questions. If you do not understand the Deaf person, stop the conversation and ask for clarification. Never fake understanding or say, “Never mind, it’s not important.” No matter how trivial, share the information.

4. Deaf people listen with their eyes. A Deaf person cannot look at an object and at the same time listen to you describe how to use it.  Only talk when you have eye contact with the Deaf person.

5. Many Deaf people will use a sign language interpreter. You should speak directly to the Deaf person, not to the interpreter, and maintain eye contact with the deaf person. This will feel awkward because the Deaf person will be looking at the interpreter, not you, but it will be noticed and appreciated by the Deaf person.

6. Some people are reluctant to attempt to communicate directly with a Deaf person when they use an interpreter. Use the beginning and end of the conversation as an opportunity for direct communication with the Deaf person. When you take the initiative to shake hands, make eye contact, use gestures, touch and/or smile, you are communicating in a visual and tactile manner.

Adapted from PepNet. (2003). Deaf Culture. http://www.pepnet.org/sites/default/files/71PEPNet%20Tipsheet%20Deaf%20Culture.pdf